Exclusive Insight into Hong Kong’s Datacenter Market: 2021 and Beyond

Hong Kong’s well-established financial and logistics industries are critical components that support the surrounding economy on both a city-wide and regional scale. Its excellent ICT networks position Hong Kong at a crucial juncture between Asia Pacific and the rest of the world, and it is a proven early adopter of technologies like 5G and GBPS Broadband. 

But underpinning these fast-moving businesses and systems are Hong Kong’s datacenters, a robust backbone to Hong Kong’s expansive digital infrastructure.  The digital transformation opportunities enabled by these datacenters is forecasted to add US$9 billion to Hong Kong’s GDP in the next three years–a year on year increase of 0.5 percent.

It’s important to look at the future of the Hong Kong market with a special focus on the heart of its data ecosystem: the data centers themselves. Our upcoming webinar “Hong Kong Datacenters: Market Insights 2021” will provide an unrivalled look into this dynamic market. 

Alex Perkins, Chief Development Officer for Status Data Centers and one of the featured panelists for the show, states:

“Hong Kong is one of the key established data centre markets in Asia Pacific, thriving on the excellent telecommunications networks linking Asia Pacific with the globe.  Being at the forefront of mobile networks connectivity with 5G mobile networks and Gbps broadband as a standard, HK has always been an early adopter of new technologies.”

Upon further reflection of this market,  Perkins went on to highlight the COVID-19 pandemic as a key accelerating factor. Hong Kong companies increased their rate of adoption of cloud computing platforms by 40 percent. In this same time frame, the Media and Entertainment data share has skyrocketed, with social media usage and gaming each up by around 35 percent and video streaming up by 50 percent.

This data boom is most acutely felt in the retail sphere, with e-commerce replacing brick-and-mortar spaces, and Hong Kongers quickly catching up to their mainland counterparts in China when it comes to digital wallet adoption.

 

How does this impact the Datacenter market?

These compounding factors have dramatically driven up demand for datacenters all over the world. In Hong Kong in particular, internet usage has increased 60 percent in the past twelve months. As Perkins explains:

“This has led to limited available capacity in the existing market, especially for larger demand of 2-5MW where options are limited, although major new projects coming to the market from 2021 should alleviate some of those issues.”

Regarding the scope and scale of these “major new projects”, Perkins admits that “Whether this satiates the need for the hyperscale players remains to be seen”, although he notes that “larger sites in TKO and Shatin may do that, however the price point will be key to attracting the big players for the longer term.”

Ultimately, Perkins notes, “The market is looking up.”

 

Learn More

W.Media’s “Hong Kong Datacenters: Market Insights 2021” series will focus on HK’s datacenter market: its business prospects, technological breakthroughs, and future trends. Registration is free. Our speakers will be discussing the commercial real estate outlook, cloud adoption in SME’s, and strengthening the market’s resilience.

Join us on Wednesday, 3rd February from 10.00am – 11.30 am for 90 minutes of invigorating conversation with Alex Perkins as well as other esteemed experts.

Future of IT Infrastructure?

In our staff meetings, I have been talking about IT workplan, with focus on cloud and mobile technologies as the approach to acquiring new capabilities and enhancing user experience at speed. Examples that I always used are Ariba for Procurement, ServiceNow for Service Desk, Workday for HR, Office365 for Productivity & Collaboration. Each of these comes with a “mobile twin”, enabling convenience at our fingertips literally. And more will follow.

In one of such meetings, someone asked me in this cloud and mobile enabled world, what is the future of IT Infra. I gave a long answer to the short but deep and enlightening question.

User world is evolving

In many organisations, users are trained on new digital competencies such as Agile, Robotic Process Automation (RPA), and Data Visualisation. Agile changes software delivery from the traditional long-drawn waterfall methodology, to quick but small deliverables using weekly sprints and daily stand-ups, and heavy user involvement. As things speed up, Agile requires DevSecOps to reduce frictions and hand-offs. RPA enables the users to automate mundane and/or laborious tasks by themselves, reducing the demand for IT to “integrate” across systems or customise workflows. Data visualisation enables users to personalise their reporting needs, reducing the demand for IT to instrument reports for various individuals.

In NTU, we too started on this user awareness journey. We have completed our second year of Technology and Adaptive Skills brown bags for our users. A glimpse of the topics and esteemed speakers for 2019:

So should IT evolve too

As users’ demand for IT shifts, so should our focus and competencies. One of such IT shifts is to go into driving automation. Google probably came up with this answer many years back, and they called it Site Reliability Engineering (SRE). Google in fact published a book by that very title, sharing how they did it and the thinking behind it. Google’s approach is to put developers into infrastructure roles. These developers, then wrote codes to solve all infrastructural tasks, be it load balancing, capacity planning, service monitoring and recovery, service provisioning, etc. Many of such codes were then contributed to the open source, giving birth to a significant portion of the ecosystem that we see today. Of course, Google’s approach is quite different, as they run at Google scale, whereas most enterprises run at a fraction of that scale. Thus, the pragmatic approach is for Infra to implement tools and products that enables automation across the same functions of load balancing, capacity planning, service monitoring and recovery, service provisioning, etc.

To enable such a shift, we have shifted budget from operations to transformations, minimising additional funding requirement. We have started some of the automation projects in our workplan, across all components of infrastructure. And we are starting to develop deeper engineering skillsets.

Partnership at maturity

As IT competency matures across both users and IT (Infra in this context), the other shift is to deepen partnership between the two. It is one thing to roll-out a platform such as Office365 and ServiceNow, it is another to drive meaningful use cases leveraging the power of such platforms. These platforms that we have implemented present many opportunities to enhance and enrich work processes as well as user experience.

Partnership has to be bi-directional. We need to develop in-depth understanding of the user domains and needs and create solutions that enhances those domains and user experience. In parallel, we are increasing the user engagements through roadshows to showcase use cases of the various products, eDM to highlight key features, knowledge articles for self-enablement, so that our users can co-imagine the future together. This is where Adaptive Skills come in handy, on storytelling, change management, communications.

Lifelong employment comes with lifelong learning. The journey will be a bountiful one.

Singapore Market Insights 2020

The rise of Singapore in the Cloud Computing, and Datacenter sphere is remarkable, and startlingly impressive for a nation with limited land. Its position as a mature datacenter hub both lends it, industry regard as well as, motivates its regional counterparts to emerge as market contenders. To that end, Indonesia, and Malaysia have emerged as the most likely Cloud Computing and Datacenter competitors. Having led the industry in  APAC and the wider global region for over a decade, the market is pivoting towards greater efficiency, and sustainability. Its reliable power grid, coupled with skilled personnel have proved to be overwhelmingly attractive against space scarcity concerns.. As new entrants establish their presence in Singapore, they have innovated to adapt to the unique features of the market landscape.

The tight regulations in Singapore was fueled in part by the inherent design inefficiencies. The legal restrictions have resulted in a massive leap in sustainable design among key industry figures. Working in tandem with the magnified focus on Datacenters and efficiency, the central government’s dedication to Cloud Computing is unparalleled. The Services 4.0 plan detailed in IMDA’s digital services report 2018 (Infocomm Media Development Authority’s  Services and Digital Economy (SDE) Technology Roadmap 2018) is in full effect. With the nation’s characteristic flair for infrastructure roll-outs, Cloud Native Architecture remains the focal point of IMDA’s digital roadmap. The Financial Services Industry(FSI), Ecommerce, and Government’s technology stack are the key drivers of Cloud in the nation. The scalability benefits alone have proved enormously attractive and pushed these sectors into adopting Cloud service delivery models.

Cybersecurity sits at the very heart of a well-designed Cloud Architecture, user confidence in the infrastructure remains crucial to the continued adoption. 

Managed Services, Migrations and Expansions listed as key projects

W.Media’s 2019 survey received responses from 1200+ IT professionals in Singapore. As an overview, the key projects that respondents are intending to undertake include Managed Services (23%), Datacenter Migration and Expansion (40%), Private Cloud Deployment (11%) and Migration to Public or Hybrid cloud (11%), with most of them indicating to commence multiple projects at the same time. Challenges listed include Budgeting and unexpected cost (35%), Migration risks and integration issues (20%), Rightsizing/Projecting IT requirements (18%), Service Excellence of providers (14%) and IT Team’s familiarity with new deployment (10%). 

Keep watch – W.Media will commence its 2020 survey for the Singapore market in Q3.

Visit the Singpaore Cloud and Datacenter Convention here.

Thailand Market Insights 2020

According to a study by Frost & Sullivan, global traffic between data centers will grow by 28% annually between 2018 and 2021, a higher growth rate than the traffic between data centers and the users, which is projected at 24%. This trend has been driven by CDNs and the need to disseminate large volumes of static content closer to the user, such as images and video. The ASEAN data center market is set to grow at a CAGR of 16.1% over the next 5 years. Emerging markets, Indonesia and Thailand, are expected to be key growth engines in ASEAN. 

This resonates with Thailand’s push for Industry 4.0 across multiple industries including manufacturing, logistics, tourism and more. The route to digital transformation by corporations in Thailand aims to cope with changing customer behavior and intense competition from global players. To support digitization, corporations will need to focus on building a strong and agile IT infrastructure, leading to the need for cutting edge strategy and technologies in cloud, data centers, and connectivity.

Just few months back, W.Media held its inaugural Cloud and Datacenter Convention in Thailand which brought together over 700 senior IT professionals. Industry experts highlighted Thailand as a strong contender to be the ICT hub for Indochina – find out more in the post event coverage via this link. 

Managed Services, Migrations and Expansions listed as key projects

W.Media’s 2019 survey received responses from 700+ IT professionals in Thailand. As an overview, the key projects that respondents are intending to undertake include Managed Services (23%), Datacenter Migration and Expansion (29%), Private Cloud Deployment (11%) and Migration to Public or Hybrid cloud (11%), with most of them indicating to commence multiple projects at the same time. Challenges listed include Budgeting and unexpected cost (34%), Migration risks and integration issues (25%), Rightsizing/Projecting IT requirements (16%), Service Excellence of providers (15%) and IT Team’s familiarity with new deployment (8%). 

Keep watch – W.Media will commence its 2020 survey for the Thailand market in Q4.

Visit the Thailand Cloud and Datacenter Convention here.

Malaysia Market Insights 2020

Malaysia’s Cloud and Datacenter landscape is primed to leap into the next phase of Cloud Computing. The rise of Artificial Intelligence (AI), coupled with its potential to revolutionize every step of the industrial, manufacturing and service delivery process, is driving this evolution. Even though AI is on the horizon with its presence working as a signal of the future dominance of Industry 4.0, uncertainties still exist. The question still lingers: Is Malaysia’s infrastructure ready?

The scalability opportunities from AI and the supporting Cloud infrastructure have inspired cloud migration. However, the mechanics of going from an on-prem to a cloud-based architecture requires a strategic plan of attack. Managed service providers are crucial to assist in what initially seems like an insurmountable task. Legacy datacenters are also reviewing their facilities to keep pace with Digital Transformation. This ecosystem of new entrants and established players are set to be in the forefront of a revolutionary industrial shift.

This new field of play comes with its own set of challenges, chiefly in securing consumer and industry confidence. The dual issues of Cybersecurity and Disaster Recovery are essential as latency is the overriding factor in sinking optimism around AI and subsequently, Industry 4.0. Cybersecurity has also been in scrutiny given the recent high profile attacks on major Malaysian organizations.

Astounding results deduced from Malaysia Cloud & Datacenter Convention 

From its pre-registration survey, out of the 800+ IT professionals in Malaysia who responded, majority were from the Financial Services industry (19.1%). Other industries include Telecommunications (17.6%), Cloud Service Providers (14.1%) and Government Agencies (10.2%). As an overview, the key projects that respondents are intending to undertake over the next 12 months include implementing Cybersecurity (27%), Datacenter Migration and Expansion (25%), Private Cloud Deployment (25%) and Migration to Public or Hybrid cloud (25%), with most of them indicating to commence multiple projects at the same time.

According to Malaysia’s mainstream news, The Star, many Malaysian companies reported a downtime of more than 24 hours due to cybersecurity breaches in 2019. It is reported that 26% of companies in Malaysia said that the most severe cybersecurity breaches in the last year has had a financial impact of more than US$1mil (RM4.11mil). As such, the MYCDC’s pre-registration survey results aligned with the news report, where many IT professionals recognise the need to address Cybersecurity in order to operate their business efficiently in the long term.

Experts will highlight best practices on Cybersecurity and Business Continuity Management 

 Apart from addressing the key concerns and challenges centred around Cybersecurity, IT and business leaders can look forward to understanding what makes the best Business Continuity Management plan – Hint: It is never just about having a plan.

 Due to unexpected crisis such as recent events like the US-China trade war and the Coronavirus, there were major disruptions in the global supply chain, and the importance of Business Continuity Management has never been more  emphasised. Business Continuity Management will be highlighted in MYCDC where we share how to better position your company in light of the recent crisis. How can technology play a part in the decision making process? How important is digitisation in the role of Business Continuity? Are you readily equipped to tackle crisis efficiently when it arises?

Keep watch – W.Media will commence its 2020 survey for the Malaysia market in Q3.

Visit the Malaysia Cloud and datacenter here.

Indonesia Market Insights 2020

Indonesia’s position as the largest economy in Southeast Asia has fueled its rise in the Cloud Computing, and Datacenter industry. Coupled with relatively low startup and operational costs, the country is rivaling traditional Cloud Computing, Cybersecurity, and Datacenter hubs.  Datacenters in Jakarta alone are set to witness a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 21.8% in the years 2019-2024 , the highest for any city in Southeast Asia (Cushman & Wakefield Datacenter Report 2019). 

The central government’s decision to enact and relax Data Sovereignty Laws, has served as a framework for the industry at large. Strict data localization laws, once created a regulatory structure that drove demand. However, the subsequent move to ease legal restrictions, and the continued robust demand, has reassured the major players in the industry. Fears of a market crash were quickly allayed. This flexibility and willingness to evolve makes Indonesia distinct from many of its closest competitors.  International heavyweights in public cloud such as Alibaba Cloud, Amazon Web Services (AWS), and Google Cloud have recognized this tremendous growth potential of the country and seized the chance to open datacenter operations within the country. 

Though  Cloud Computing expansion remains on an upward trajectory, power infrastructure is still an issue throughout the country. Latency arises as a major stumbling block to the massive Cloud Computing growth lying within reach. Additionally, Indonesia’s decision to shift its capital  opens the field up to a vast number of new entrants. The plan to move the administrative heart of the country to Borneo, presents an opportunity for businesses to work together with governmental organizations, and embark on Digital Transformation and Cloud Migration strategies. The degree of changes in Indonesia necessitates an in-depth analysis of the different strategic directions available for companies in the market. 

Keep watch – W.Media will commence its 2020 survey for the Indonesia market in Q3.

Visit the Indonesia Cloud and Datacenter Convention here.

Vietnam Market Insights 2020

Among ASEAN countries, Vietnam has increasingly proven itself to have one of the largest room for cloud adoption with the country’s rapid growth in Cloud expenditure. In 2018, Vietnam’s Cloud service market was valued at USD$165 million and it is projected to reach $291 million by 2024, exhibiting a double digit CAGR of 10% between 2019 and 2024.

According to APAC SMB Digital Maturity Index released in April 2019, 18% of Small and Medium-sized Businesses (SMBs) in Vietnam kickstarted their digital transformation journey through investing in Cloud Computing. Venturing into Cloud Computing enabled these companies to build large-scaled computing power, as well as to minimise technical requirements and physical storage. In addition, Cloud adoption has also equipped these SMBs with the appropriate technology to expand their IT infrastructure, which would have otherwise required a significant upfront capital investment. 

Following through a conversation with Mr Luong Huu Tuan, Co-founder of Vietnam Open Infrastructure Community, he highlighted that Vietnam’s Cloud market in in 2020 would be extremely exciting, with many interesting changes in the market to anticipate and new challenges to be tackled. For instance, the young talents in Vietnam’s IT industry are currently implementing a smart cloud platform for the digital transformation process in the country. With this move, we can expect Vietnam’s Cloud market to advance even further in the near future.

While local SMBs are moving towards cloud adoption and digital transformation, these are not without challenges. Based on APAC SMB Digital Maturity Index, local respondents indicated these areas that they lack of which deters them from cloud adoption: Digital Skills and Talent (17%), Insights into Operational and Customer Data (17%), Robust IT platform (9%). However, the Vietnamese government has stepped up and is taking measures to tackle these challenges that the locals face, which has greatly aided the decision of SMBs to adopt digitalization. For example, most of the respondents are aware of the government’s initiatives to support SMBs in digitalization and at least 64% had benefitted from them.

 Moving forward with the navigation and growth of Vietnam’s digital businesses, W.Media will be bringing back the largest Vietnam Cloud & Datacenter Convention to Ho Chi Minh on 27th August 2020. It is the one and only inclusive event where end-users, operators, system integrators, consultants & engineers are able to meet and connect. Our conference agenda would help to tap on key progresses, best practices, concerns and the future of cloud and data centre innovations. 

Keep watch – W.Media will commence its 2020 survey for the Vietnam market in Q3.

Visit the Vietnam Cloud and Datacenter Convention.

OVHcloud sets to capture Cloud market share in Asia Pacific with infrastructure expansion

Founded in 1999, OVHcloud has evolved from a web hosting company to becoming one of the global top 10 cloud players and is now positioned as a market leader in the industry. W.Media was privileged to be able to speak with Lionel Legros, General Manager of their Asia Pacific business cluster.

Trusted expertise and fast delivery is key to OVHcloud’s success

Hop on to ​OVHcloud.com​ and, every IT professional will be able to find the cloud solutions and bare-metal servers most suited to their expectations and for the most critical of their infrastructural needs. This is made possible by OVHcloud’s end-to-end control of its production lines and automated processes, including manufacturing their own racks and servers, and owning asset-heavy datacenters.

OVHcloud is able to differentiate from its competitors as it enables customers to select one or more dedicated servers with a single click. Most importantly, the servers can be made available to customers in just under 120 seconds. This efficiency and convenience provided by OVHcloud has allowed the company to retain a strong customer base.

Legros shared that to tackle the growing concerns of data security, OVHcloud provides dedicated infrastructure, such as Bare-metal servers and Hosted Private Cloud services, giving our customers the ability to keep control of their data. The company also provides managed network services which assist in mitigating attacks coupled with the advantageous fact that OVH owns their network fibres.

 

“Game servers are a frequent target for DDoS attacks so we needed the best protection for our services,” said Mitch Smith, Managing Director, Shockbyte, a game server provider based in Australia and one of the longest running Minecraft hosts. “After we switched to OVHcloud, we have been able to completely mitigate all attacks, and to this day we have never experienced another outage due to a DdoS attack. Another reason we chose OVHcloud is because we needed a provider that would allow us to scale fast. OVHcloud allows us to setup new servers instantly, which means we can scale as needed, rather than attempt to predict our requirements.”

Expansion in Asia Pacific

OVHcloud’s Public Cloud services is currently one of the largest Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) solutions based on OpenStack. It is now available globally, attracting customers into 49 locations in Asia Pacific and 215 locations worldwide. Following the launch of their APAC office in Melbourne in 2017, OVHcloud has continued its expansion into APAC by setting up datacenters in Sydney and Singapore. With datacenters located in APAC, businesses in the region can benefit from improved resilience and higher speeds for data transfer. It will also benefit existing EMEA customers seeking to expand their businesses into APAC.

This expansion aligns with the company’s multi-local strategy, which aims to bring datacenters physically closer to local end-users. Despite high growth and expansions, OVHcloud is committed to delivering fast and reliable services to their customers.

OVHcloud now provides Cloud solutions worldwide from datacenters across Europe, North America and Asia Pacific.

About OVHcloud

OVHcloud is a global cloud provider that specializes in delivering industry-leading performance and cost-effective solutions to better manage, secure, and scale data. OVHcloud provides a smarter alternative for bare metal servers, hosted private cloud, hybrid and public cloud solutions. The group manages 30 datacenters across 12 sites in 4 continents, manufacturing its own servers, building its own datacenters and deploying its own fibre-optic global network to achieve maximum efficiency. Through OVHcloud spirit of challenging the status quo, the company brings freedom, security and innovation to solve data challenges – today and tomorrow. With a 20-year heritage, a solid European foundation and a strong presence worldwide, OVHcloud is committed to developing responsible technologists, as the group strives to be the driving force behind the next cloud evolution.

Southeast Asia (SEA) Datacenters set to witness accelerated growth in the next 5 years

Southeast Asia as a powerhouse

A report by Cushman & Wakefield estimates that the Southeast Asia Datacenter market is set to achieve a Compounded Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 13% in the years 2019 to 2024. The region is projected to achieve accelerated growth in the market as more companies are choosing to develop datacenters in Southeast Asia. Asia-Pacific as a whole, is on track to lead the datacenter market by 2021 with a total market size estimated at US$28 billion. 

Malaysian-based and Japanese-owned company, Regal Orion Bhd Sdn., is in the process of building a US$290m Green Datacenter in Labu, Negeri Sembilan. The datacenter facility will occupy 11,520 square metres of space, and host up to 4,064 racks. Essentially making it the largest facility to be housed within a single site in Southeast Asia. 

Datacenter firm DCI Indonesia, has also begun construction of its third datacenter facility called JK3 in Cibitung, West Java in Indonesia. Toto Sugiri, CEO of DCI, shared that “DCI is ready to become a pioneer who presents the largest hyperscale datacenter facility in Indonesia,”. Furthermore, Indonesia’s stellar growth as a young market is capped off by NTT Communications Corporation, announcing the development of a new datacenter campus at Bekasi, Indonesia.

The greater need for an improved IT infrastructure is driven by the potential for rapid digital economic growth. The ever-increasing development of datacenters in Indonesia is a testament to the improved IT ecosystem. With an enhanced IT infrastructure, companies can depend on reliable and stable data access and ramp up service delivery. 

With its developed infrastructure and vibrant business climate, Singapore is the natural choice for Facebook as their entry point into the Southeast Asian Datacenter Market. This new datacenter will be the first to incorporate the new StatePoint Liquid Cooling system, an innovation targeted at the minimisation of water and power consumption. Additionally, Singapore’s scarcity of land resources was central in Facebook’s datacenter high-rise design, reducing urban sprawl, and maximising land. These innovative approaches signal new paths of growth in mature markets. 

Hosting powerhouse of data

Singapore is projected to lead APAC growth well into 2024, outpacing North America. Considering the land-scare nature of Singapore, Jakarta and Malaysian are next in line for a massive uptick in datacenter growth. Industry giants such as Huawei, Alibaba, and Microsoft are already investing in these countries as a recognition of their market potential.

As its market position evolves, Malaysia will be the beneficiary of green technology becoming the pillar of datacenter design. As the notoriously energy inefficient processes of Datacenters get addressed in more mature markets, an emerging market like Malaysia stands to gain from this new call to action. The abundance of hydro-resources and its geographic nature as a peninsula makes it an ideal candidate for sub-sea cables.

With over 22 cables connected in close proximity to Singapore, Malaysia is seen as a major contender in the region. Malaysia’s public and private sectors, are keen to promote digital transformation through effective strategic partnerships with global and local datacenter vendors. The government of Malaysia is focused on upgrading the telecommunications and network infrastructure to improve readiness for hyperscale datacenters. Considering business continuity plans are already central in rising and mature datacenter markets, the region looks set to achieve healthy growth in the foreseeable future. 

The rapidly changing landscape of Southeast Asia’s Datacenter industry opens the playing field to new entrants, and international heavyweights. W.Media’s series of Cloud and Datacenter Conventions throughout the region, focuses precisely on the vast growth opportunities available. The Conventions are tailored to be country-specific yet fully designed to carve out and capitalize on the local market’s international standing.  Reach out to our consultants to best meet your business and marketing interests. 

Be part of the latest developments in Cloud and Datacenters:

  • Malaysia Cloud & Datacenter Convention, Kuala Lumpur – 27th February 2020 
  • South Korea Cloud & Datacenter Convention, Seoul – 12th March 2020
  • Vietnam Cloud & Datacenter Convention, Hanoi – 8th April 2020
  • Philippines Cloud & Datacenter Convention, Manila – 14th May 2020
  • Singapore Cloud & Datacenter Convention – 16th July 2020
  • Vietnam Cloud & Datacenter Convention, Ho Chi Minh – 27th August 2020 
  • Indonesia Cloud & Datacenter Convention, Jarkata – 24th September 2020 
  • Thailand Cloud & Datacenter Convention, Bangkok – 4th November 2020

Opiah, Abigail, and Antony Savvas. “Regal Orion to Build $289.8m Green Data Centre in Malaysia.” Data Economy, 3 May 2019, data-economy.com/regal-orion-to-build-289-8m-green-data-centre-in-malaysia/.

Opiah, Abigail, and Antony Savvas. “DCI Indonesia Begins Building Its Third Data Centre Facility.” Data Economy, 18 Nov. 2019, data-economy.com/dci-indonesia-begins-building-its-third-data-centre-facility/.

Kwang, Kevin. “Facebook to Build First Asian Data Centre in Singapore, Investing S$1.4 Billion.” CNA, 6 Sept. 2018, www.channelnewsasia.com/news/technology/facebook-data-centre-singapore-jobs-asia-10688962.